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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=(sexually transmitted infections OR sexually transmitted diseases) AND (point of care diagnostics OR pregnancy outcomes OR antibiotic resistance) NOT hiv
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Mycoplasma genitalium co-infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among asymptomatic patients: the silent wick for macrolide resistance spread.

Sat, 07/20/2019 - 08:00
Related Articles

Mycoplasma genitalium co-infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among asymptomatic patients: the silent wick for macrolide resistance spread.

Sex Transm Infect. 2019 Aug;95(5):391

Authors: Fernández-Huerta M, Espasa M

PMID: 31320599 [PubMed - in process]

From Cervical Cap to Mobile App: Examining the Potential Reproductive Health Impacts of New Technologies.

Fri, 07/19/2019 - 07:58
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From Cervical Cap to Mobile App: Examining the Potential Reproductive Health Impacts of New Technologies.

Health Promot Pract. 2019 Jul 17;:1524839919863464

Authors: Dorland JM, Fowler LR, Morain SR

Abstract
Web- and application-based prescription services have been heralded as "Uber for birth control," offering patients the convenience of obtaining hormonal contraceptives at the touch of a smartphone screen. This innovation stands poised to disrupt a system that currently fails to meet the contraceptive needs of many women, particularly adolescents and those who are rural or low-income. The creation of online contraceptive prescribers provides a new and promising avenue for increased access to hormonal birth control. However, the reach and coverage of these services, as well as their implications for public health goals, including unintended pregnancy and various health screenings, remains unclear. In this article, we describe the current landscape of online contraceptive services and identify the potential impacts on unplanned pregnancy and other health outcomes. We find these services may reduce geographic and logistical barriers for rural and low-income populations. However, their impact on access for adolescents is likely to be minimal, as more than half the services do not prescribe to minors. Furthermore, increasing use of telemedicine may reduce rates of screening for public health concerns, including interpartner violence, sexually transmitted infections, and cervical cancer. We offer specific recommendations for future research to evaluate the impact of these services on unplanned pregnancy and other public health outcomes.

PMID: 31315457 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Obstetric determinants of preterm delivery in a regional hospital, Accra, Ghana 2016.

Wed, 07/17/2019 - 07:55

Obstetric determinants of preterm delivery in a regional hospital, Accra, Ghana 2016.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019 Jul 15;19(1):248

Authors: Aseidu EK, Bandoh DA, Ameme DK, Nortey P, Akweongo P, Sackey SO, Afari E, Nyarko KM, Kenu E

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Globally, prematurity is a major determinant of morbidity and mortality contributing 30-40% of neonatal mortality. The consequences of preterm deliveries are enormous with developmental and childhood complications as well as high economic and psycho-social burden on the parents (family) and society. Some risk factors include ever having preterm delivery, multiple births and some medical conditions like sexually transmitted infection and urinary tract infections but these have not been ascertained in our study area. Much research into these risk factors is needed in Ghana. We assessed the obstetric determinants of preterm delivery.
METHODS: We conducted a 1:2 unmatched case-control study in Greater Accra Regional Hospital (GARH) -Ridge, a secondary referral facility in Accra, Ghana (from October, 2015 -May, 2016). A case was a mother who delivered between 28 and 36 weeks of gestation (preterm) and a control was a mother who delivered after 37 to 42 completed weeks (term). We used structured questionnaire to collect data, reviewed maternal and foetal records using a checklist. Categorical variables were analysed and expressed as frequencies and proportions. We determined the association between obstetric factors and preterm delivery with multiple logistic regression. Significance level of the strength of association was determined at 95% CI and p-value < 0.05.
RESULTS: We recruited 390 mothers, 130 had preterm deliveries (cases) and 260 had term deliveries (controls). Experiencing premature rupture of membrane (aOR: 2.3; 95% CI:1.0-5.5), pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (aOR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.0-11.9) were found to be associated with preterm delivery. However, four or more ANC visit was protective factor for preterm delivery (aOR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.4).
CONCLUSION: Premature rupture of membrane, hypertensive complications and antepartum haemorrhage were found to be risk factors associated with preterm delivery in Ridge Hospital. Health workforce providing ANC services need to identify risk factors and refer these mothers to the doctor for early management and improved outcome decreasing preterm delivery.

PMID: 31307408 [PubMed - in process]

No. 208-Guidelines for the Management of Herpes Simplex Virus in Pregnancy.

Tue, 07/16/2019 - 07:53
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No. 208-Guidelines for the Management of Herpes Simplex Virus in Pregnancy.

J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2017 Aug;39(8):e199-e205

Authors: Money DM, Steben M

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To provide recommendations for the management of genital herpes infection in women who want to get pregnant or are pregnant and for the management of genital herpes in pregnancy and strategies to prevent transmission to the infant.
OUTCOMES: More effective management of complications of genital herpes in pregnancy and prevention of transmission of genital herpes from mother to infant.
EVIDENCE: Medline was searched for articles published in French or English related to genital herpes and pregnancy. Additional articles were identified through the references of these articles. All study types and recommendation reports were reviewed.
VALUES: Recommendations were made according to the guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care.
RECOMMENDATIONS: VALIDATION: These guidelines have been reviewed and approved by the Infectious Diseases Committee of the SOGC.
SPONSOR: The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada.

PMID: 28729112 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Knowledge, utilization and barriers to primary care services for sexual and reproductive health among adolescents in secondary schools in Selangor, Malaysia.

Thu, 07/11/2019 - 16:43

Knowledge, utilization and barriers to primary care services for sexual and reproductive health among adolescents in secondary schools in Selangor, Malaysia.

Malays Fam Physician. 2019;14(1):10-17

Authors: Othman S, Kong SZ, Mohd Mydin FH, Ng CJ

Abstract
Early sexual debut, partner violence, pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections contribute to negative health outcomes among adolescents. While the primary care clinics offer accessible sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services to adolescents, it is uncertain whether adolescents are aware of and utilize these services. This study aimed to examine Malaysian adolescents' knowledge, utilization and barriers to primary care services for SRH. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August to November 2011 among adolescent from five randomly selected schools in Selangor, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess their knowledge, attitudes, sexual behaviors and utilization of SRH services. A total of 680 adolescents participated in the study. One in ten of the adolescents were aware of the availability of SRH services, and only 6.9% of them had ever visited a primary care clinic for SRH. About 75% of them felt uncomfortable going to a primary care clinic for SRH services. Knowledge and utilization of primary care clinics for SRH among adolescents in Malaysia is poor.

PMID: 31289626 [PubMed]

Challenges in the Contemporary Management of Syphilis among Pregnant Women in New Orleans, LA.

Wed, 07/10/2019 - 13:41
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Challenges in the Contemporary Management of Syphilis among Pregnant Women in New Orleans, LA.

Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2019;2019:2613962

Authors: Stafford IA, Berra A, Minard CG, Fontenot V, Kopkin RH, Rodrigue E, Roitsch CM, Rac MW, Hill JB

Abstract
Objective: The aim of this retrospective review is to evaluate trends in the management of maternal and congenital syphilis (CS) in a tertiary care center in New Orleans, LA.
Study Design: All cases of maternal and neonatal syphilis over a five year period at Touro Infirmary, New Orleans, LA, were identified using ICD-9/10 codes. Charts were reviewed for demographic and obstetrical variables, stage of syphilis at diagnosis, lab values, and treatment regimen. Newborn treatment and other outcomes were recorded.
Results: During the study period 106 infected mother-baby pairs were identified. Of these, 73 charts are available for review. 41% (n = 30) of women received inadequate therapy according to their stage of disease. 9% of newborns (n = 6) were found to be symptomatic for CS; however, only 83.3% of these were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Only 20% (n = 6) of infants were adequately treated with an extended penicillin regimen if the mother was not adequately treated. Furthermore, only 63.0% of newborns had a nontreponemal titer performed.
Conclusion: With rising rates of CS, strict adherence to the 2015 CDC guidelines for treatment of syphilis must be maintained.

PMID: 30894787 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Syphilis.

Wed, 07/10/2019 - 13:41
Related Articles

Syphilis.

Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2017 10 12;3:17076

Authors:

PMID: 29022573 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Prevalence of porA pseudogene deletion among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates referred to the UK's Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance Program.

Wed, 07/10/2019 - 13:41
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Prevalence of porA pseudogene deletion among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates referred to the UK's Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance Program.

Sex Health. 2017 08;14(4):392-393

Authors: Toby M, Saunders P, Cole M, Grigorjev V, Alexander S, Ison C

Abstract
porA pseudogene-negative Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates produce false-negative results when examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with porA pseudogene targets. In the present study, 533 representative gonococcal isolates received in 2011 via the Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance Program were examined to determine the prevalence of porA-negative isolates. Less than 0.4% (2/533) of isolates were found to be reproducibly negative with the porA real-time PCR but were confirmed as N. gonorrhoeae with molecular, biochemical and immunological confirmatory tests. Sequencing revealed both isolates contained the Neisseria meningitidis porA gene. Low prevalence indicates that although these isolates do not present a major public health problem, microbiologists should remain vigilant.

PMID: 28514990 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Mycoplasma genitalium and the means to others' ends.

Sat, 07/06/2019 - 07:32
Related Articles

Mycoplasma genitalium and the means to others' ends.

Sex Transm Infect. 2019 Jul 04;:

Authors: Dunphy KP

PMID: 31273048 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Adolescent Age of Sexual Initiation and Subsequent Adult Health Outcomes.

Sat, 07/06/2019 - 07:32
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Adolescent Age of Sexual Initiation and Subsequent Adult Health Outcomes.

Am J Public Health. 2018 06;108(6):822-828

Authors: Epstein M, Madeline Furlong, Kosterman R, Bailey JA, King KM, Vasilenko SA, Steeger CM, Hill KG

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To examine the mechanisms of the association between age of sexual initiation and adult health.
METHODS: Data from the Seattle Social Development Project (n = 808), in Seattle, Washington, included outcomes when participants were in their 30s (2005-2014): substance use disorders, depression, poor health, and obesity. Sexual consequence mediators included sexually transmitted infection, adolescent pregnancy, and a high number of sexual partners. We used linear logistic regression to model main effect and mediated associations.
RESULTS: Age of sexual initiation was related to nicotine and marijuana disorders, physical health, and obesity, but not alcohol disorder or depression. Mediated association with nicotine disorder was not significant; association with marijuana disorder was reduced; significant relationships with poor health and obesity remained.
CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between age of sexual initiation and substance use was largely explained by consequences of sexual behavior. Earlier sexual initiation was linked to poorer physical health outcomes, though the nature of the association remains unclear. Public Health Implications. Prevention approaches need to address multiple risk factors and emphasize contraceptive methods to avoid sexual consequences. For physical health outcomes, broad prevention approaches, including addressing early sexual initiation, may be effective.

PMID: 29672143 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Treatment for pharyngeal gonorrhoea under threat.

Wed, 07/03/2019 - 07:26
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Treatment for pharyngeal gonorrhoea under threat.

Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 11;18(11):1175-1177

Authors: Regan DG, Hui BB, Wood JG, Fifer H, Lahra MM, Whiley DM

PMID: 30507396 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Brief report: Assessing the risk of reporting bias in a RCT for adolescent mothers.

Sun, 06/30/2019 - 07:21
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Brief report: Assessing the risk of reporting bias in a RCT for adolescent mothers.

J Adolesc. 2019 Jun 25;74:197-200

Authors: Stevens J, Rotz D, Goesling B

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Most adolescent sexual and reproductive health studies rely solely upon self-report surveys to assess key variables such as pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The current study investigated the risk of reporting bias that may result from using such surveys to measure outcomes in randomized controlled trials (RCTs).
METHODS: As part of an RCT of a multicomponent intervention to delay repeat pregnancy among adolescent mothers, we compared survey data on repeat pregnancy with birth records from a state's vital statistics system. The survey assessed contraceptive use, pregnancy status, and future pregnancy intentions. The sample consisted of American adolescents ages 18 and 19 years who were at least 28 weeks pregnant or less than nine weeks postpartum.
RESULTS: For 14 of 331 study participants (4 percent), we found a birth record in the vital statistics system for a mother who reported not having gotten pregnant on the survey. We found no evidence of underreporting for the other survey respondents. The rate of underreporting was similar for the intervention and control groups.
CONCLUSIONS: A low rate of underreporting for repeat pregnancy in adolescent mothers was found in the present sample.

PMID: 31252347 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Sexual activity and sexual health among young adults with and without mild/moderate intellectual disability.

Sun, 06/30/2019 - 07:21
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Sexual activity and sexual health among young adults with and without mild/moderate intellectual disability.

BMC Public Health. 2018 05 29;18(1):667

Authors: Baines S, Emerson E, Robertson J, Hatton C

Abstract
BACKGROUND: There is widespread concern about the sexual 'vulnerability' of young people with intellectual disabilities, but little evidence relating to sexual activity and sexual health.
METHOD: This paper describes a secondary analysis of the nationally representative longitudinal Next Steps study (formerly the Longitudinal Survey of Young People in England), investigating sexual activity and sexual health amongst young people with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities. This analysis investigated family socio-economic position, young person socio-economic position, household composition, area deprivation, peer victimisation, friendships, sexual activity, unsafe sex, STIs, pregnancy outcomes and parenting.
RESULTS: Most young people with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities have had sexual intercourse by age 19/20, although young women were less likely to have sex prior to 16 than their peers and both men and women with intellectual disabilities were more likely to have unsafe sex 50% or more of the time than their peers. Women with intellectual disabilities were likely to have been pregnant and more likely to be a mother.
CONCLUSION: Most young people with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities have sex and are more likely to have unsafe sex than their peers. Education and health services need to operate on the assumption that most young people with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities will have sex.

PMID: 29843657 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

International Travel as a Context for Sexual and Contraceptive Behaviors: A Qualitative Study of Young Women Traveling Outside the U.S.

Fri, 06/28/2019 - 07:10
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International Travel as a Context for Sexual and Contraceptive Behaviors: A Qualitative Study of Young Women Traveling Outside the U.S.

Arch Sex Behav. 2019 Jun 26;:

Authors: Martins SL, Hellerstedt WL, Bowman SB, Brady SS, Mason SM

Abstract
International travel is popular worldwide, yet its implications for sexual and reproductive health are not fully understood. Few studies have examined the contextual factors that shape women's sexual and contraceptive behaviors-and thus, their risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs)-while traveling outside their home country. In this qualitative study, female university students with recent (n = 25) or upcoming (n = 19) travel outside the U.S. completed semi-structured interviews from October 2015 to March 2017. Transcripts were analyzed for themes related to contraceptive and sexual behaviors: (1) participants' pre-travel expectations of sex; (2) the circumstances surrounding sexual encounters with men while traveling; (3) negotiation about condom and contraception use with partners; and (4) factors affecting contraceptive adherence. Participants generally expected to be abstinent during travel, citing myriad rationales that included personal values, no perceived opportunities for sex, and the nature of the trip. Some travelers had unexpected sexual encounters, involving health-protecting behaviors and risk-taking (e.g., unprotected sex, substance use). New sexual partnerships were fueled by increased attention from men, situational disinhibition, and perceived heightened intimacy. International travel brought many contraceptive considerations (adequacy of supplies, access to refrigeration, time zone differences, etc.) as well as obstacles that triggered contraceptive lapses and discontinuation. Pill users described the most challenges, while travelers using intrauterine devices expressed appreciation for their maintenance-free contraception. This study suggests complex associations between international travel and young women's sexual and reproductive health. Some travelers were more vulnerable to situational risk factors, while others may have been more insulated. We identify potential intervention opportunities via clinical services, education, and policy to reduce young women's risk of adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes while traveling abroad. We urge greater recognition of and conversations about contraceptive lapse and unintended pregnancy as potential health risks for female travelers of reproductive age, just as clinical guidelines acknowledge travel-associated STI.

PMID: 31243616 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Structural stigma and sexual orientation-related reproductive health disparities in a longitudinal cohort study of female adolescents.

Thu, 06/27/2019 - 07:08
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Structural stigma and sexual orientation-related reproductive health disparities in a longitudinal cohort study of female adolescents.

J Adolesc. 2019 Jun 22;74:183-187

Authors: Charlton BM, Hatzenbuehler ML, Jun HJ, Sarda V, Gordon AR, Raifman JRG, Austin SB

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Sexual minority female adolescents have worse reproductive health than heterosexual peers; research into the origins of these disparities is limited. Our objective was to examine whether exposure to structural stigma (e.g., societal-level conditions, cultural norms, institutional policies/practices that constrain the lives of the stigmatized) is associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and teen pregnancy in sexual minority female adolescents.
METHODS: Longitudinal data were utilized from 6581 female adolescents aged 9-14 years at baseline (1996) in the U.S.-based Growing Up Today Study and followed through 2007. We used a previously-validated structural stigma scale composed of four state-level items (e.g., employment non-discrimination policies) with one item added relevant to reproductive health. Risk ratios were generated from multivariate models.
RESULTS: Sexual minority female adolescents were significantly more likely than heterosexual peers to have an STI diagnosis and teen pregnancy. Sexual minority female adolescents living in states with lower, compared to higher, levels of structural stigma were significantly less likely to have an STI diagnosis, after adjustment for individual- and state-level covariates (relative risk [RR] = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51, 0.97). In contrast, among completely heterosexual adolescents, structural stigma was not associated with STI diagnosis. Teen pregnancy risk-a rare outcome-did not vary by level of structural stigma for sexual minority or heterosexual adolescents.
CONCLUSIONS: Structural stigma is a potential risk factor for adverse reproductive health among sexual minority female adolescents. Changing laws and policies to be inclusive of all people, regardless of sexual orientation, can help alleviate entrenched reproductive health disparities.

PMID: 31238178 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

In vitro activity of zoliflodacin (ETX0914) against macrolide-resistant, fluoroquinolone-resistant and antimicrobial-susceptible Mycoplasma genitalium strains.

Thu, 06/27/2019 - 07:08
Related Articles

In vitro activity of zoliflodacin (ETX0914) against macrolide-resistant, fluoroquinolone-resistant and antimicrobial-susceptible Mycoplasma genitalium strains.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018 05 01;73(5):1291-1294

Authors: Damião Gouveia AC, Unemo M, Jensen JS

Abstract
Background: Mycoplasma genitalium is estimated to be the second most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection in Europe. It is of increasing public health concern due to the rapid development of resistance to different antimicrobial classes, including the preferred first- and second-line treatments azithromycin and moxifloxacin. Thus, new antimicrobial agents are urgently needed, especially for the treatment of MDR strains.
Methods: The in vitro activity of the new spiropyrimidinetrione zoliflodacin against 47 M. genitalium strains was assessed by growing M. genitalium in Vero cell culture and measuring growth by quantitative PCR. The collection included 34 moxifloxacin-susceptible (MIC <1 mg/L) and 13 moxifloxacin-resistant (MIC ≥1 mg/L) strains. Twenty-three of the strains were azithromycin resistant (MIC ≥16 mg/L) and 12 of these strains were MDR.
Results: Only one (2.1%) strain with substantially increased MIC (4 mg/L) and potential resistance to zoliflodacin was found. Zoliflodacin was overall more potent than moxifloxacin (P = 0.009) and no cross-resistance was observed between the two drug classes of topoisomerase II inhibitors. Differences in the MICs of zoliflodacin and azithromycin were not statistically significant; however, 23 (48.9%) compared with potentially 1 (2.1%) of the strains were resistant to azithromycin and zoliflodacin, respectively.
Conclusions: Zoliflodacin is a promising candidate for the treatment of M. genitalium and it is important to further develop and evaluate this drug.

PMID: 29444242 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Azithromycin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae spreading amongst men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals in New South Wales, Australia, 2017.

Thu, 06/27/2019 - 07:08
Related Articles

Azithromycin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae spreading amongst men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals in New South Wales, Australia, 2017.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018 05 01;73(5):1242-1246

Authors: Whiley DM, Kundu RL, Jennison AV, Buckley C, Limnios A, Hogan T, Enriquez R, El Nasser J, George CR, Lahra MM

Abstract
Objectives: To identify the genetic basis of resistance as well as to better understand the epidemiology of a recent surge in azithromycin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in New South Wales, Australia.
Methods: Azithromycin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae isolates (n = 118) collected from 107 males, 10 females and 1 transsexual between January and July 2017 were genotyped using a previously described iPLEX method. The results were compared with phenotypic resistance profiles and available patient data.
Results: The iPLEX results revealed 10 different N. gonorrhoeae genotypes (designated AZI-G1 to AZI-G10) of which three were responsible for the majority of infections; AZI-G10 (74.6%, 88 isolates; 87 males and 1 transsexual), AZI-G4 (11.0%, 13 isolates; 7 males and 6 females) and AZI-G7 (6.8%, 8 isolates; 7 males and 1 female). The observed resistance was attributable to one of two different azithromycin resistance mechanisms; the 23S rRNA C2611T mutation was identified in 24% of isolates, whereas the majority of resistance (76%) was associated with a meningococcal-type mtrR variant. Additionally, one isolate was found to harbour both the 23S rRNA C2611T mutation and a type XXXIV mosaic penA sequence associated with cephalosporin resistance.
Conclusions: These data indicate outbreaks of azithromycin-resistant gonococci amongst networks of MSM and heterosexuals in New South Wales. The results also provide further evidence that azithromycin may soon be an ineffective treatment option for gonococcal infection and highlight the urgent need to explore alternative therapies.

PMID: 29373697 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Trends in participation in teen pregnancy and STI prevention programming, 2002-2016.

Fri, 06/21/2019 - 06:57

Trends in participation in teen pregnancy and STI prevention programming, 2002-2016.

Prev Med. 2019 Jun 17;:105753

Authors: Salas-Wright CP, AbiNader MA, Vaughn MG, Sanchez M, De La Rosa M

Abstract
Programs designed to help youth prevent early/unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) have been shown to yield a positive impact on youth behavior and key outcomes. However, recent evidence suggests that youth participation in prevention programming for health-risk behavior may be declining. The aim of the present study is to provide up-to-date information on the national trends in adolescent participation in prevention programming targeting early pregnancy and STI in the United States. We examined fifteen years of cross-sectional data (2002-2016, N = 234,803) from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Our main outcome was youth self-reported (no/yes) past-year participation in a pregnancy or STI prevention program. Survey adjusted prevalence estimates and logistic regression analysis were used to examine trends in participation. Youth participation in pregnancy and STI prevention programming decreased significantly from a high of 15% in 2003 to a low of 7% in 2016. Representing a 53% proportional decline in youth participation, this downward trend was significant even when controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, household income, and urbanicity (AOR: 0.947, 95% CI: 0.943-0.951). The downward trend in participation was observed across racial/ethnic subgroups. A consistent pattern of differences in prevalence was observed with African-American youth reporting the highest levels of participation followed by Hispanic, and then White youth. It is incumbent upon concerned citizens, scientists, and policymakers to push for change that can shift the trend line in adolescent participation in teen pregnancy and STI prevention programming to an upward tilt.

PMID: 31220508 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Multiplex TaqMan real-time PCR platform for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone.

Fri, 06/21/2019 - 06:57
Related Articles

Multiplex TaqMan real-time PCR platform for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019 Apr;93(4):299-304

Authors: Zhao L, Liu A, Li R, Zhao S

Abstract
A multiplex TaqMan real-time PCR platform was developed in this study for combined detection of opa and/or porA genes (identification of N. gonorrhoeae) and the key mutations (Ala501Val/Thr/Pro, and/or Gly545Ser) in penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) associated with decreased susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs). Firstly, the specificities of the TaqMan probes/primers for the multiplex TaqMan real time PCR platform were confirmed by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis. Then the multiplex PCR platform was performed on 77 isolates with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (CRO) and 100 isolates with full susceptibility to CRO under universal optimized reaction conditions. As a result, based on cultivation-based matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing in vitro, the multiplex platform had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 95.0% for identifying cultured isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae, NG, GC) with decreased susceptibility to CRO. When directly screening N. gonorrhoeae with decreased susceptibility to CRO from clinical urogenital swabs, the multiplex platform offered a sensitivity of 96.1% and a specificity of 95.0%. Therefore, on the basis of sample culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing in vitro, the multiplex TaqMan real time PCR platform has been proven to be a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 95.0% useful tool for screening cultured isolates of N. gonorrhoeae with decreased susceptibility to CRO, which can be finished within 2 days.

PMID: 30473448 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Does the Primary Resource of Sex Education Matter? A Swiss National Study.

Thu, 06/20/2019 - 06:55

Does the Primary Resource of Sex Education Matter? A Swiss National Study.

J Sex Res. 2019 Jun 19;:1-11

Authors: Barrense-Dias Y, Akre C, Surís JC, Berchtold A, Morselli D, Jacot-Descombes C, Leeners B

Abstract
Sex education (SE) remains a subject of debate, including controversies on resources. The purpose of this paper was to determine the main SE resource during adolescence and its associations with personal characteristics and sexual behaviors of youths. Data were obtained from a self-administrated Swiss national survey on sexuality among young adults (mean age 26.3). Participants (N = 4978) were divided into six groups according to their main SE resource during their adolescence: Friends (1939; 38.9%), Parents (1361; 27.3%), School (n = 949; 19.1%), The Internet (399; 8.0%), Nobody (172; 3.5%) and Other (157; 3.2%). Groups were compared on sociodemographic, first sexual experiences, pregnancy, risky sexual behaviors, and undesired sexual experiences data. Males and non-heterosexual participants were overrepresented in the Internet group while, females more often reported their parents as their main SE resource. Participants in the School group reported the lowest rates of sexually transmitted infections and Friends the highest. Compared to the School group, those in the Friends, Internet, Nobody, and Other groups were more likely to report undesired sexual experiences. Few differences appeared between parents and school. Even though some resources such as friends or the Internet presented negative outcomes when they were assessed individually, we cannot deny the important place that they occupy in the lives of some youths.

PMID: 31215800 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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